How asthma affects the lungs for GCSE science classes Asthma affects the larger areas of the lungs, the trachea and bronchi. Problems with mucus accumulation and muscle constriction affect the amount of oxygen getting to the alveoli for gas exchange. There is no cure for asthma, but current preventative medication, such as the different types of inhalers, help to relax the muscles and can be taken twice daily. A faster-acting medication is available in the event of an attack.
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